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President George H. Bush immediately condemned the invasion, as did the governments of Britain and the Soviet Union.
On November 29, , the U. George N. Holmes Jr. Richard L. Bakke, of Long Beach, California; Maj. Harold L. Lewis Jr. Joel C. Mayo, of Harrisville, Michigan; Capt.
Lyn D. McIntosh, of Valdosta, Georgia; Capt. Charles T. McMillan of Corryton, Tennessee. Bond read a message from President Jimmy Carter at a memorial service commemorating them in Niceville, Florida.
Richard Bakke, Maj. Harold Lewis, Jr. Joel Mayo — were buried in the Arlington National Cemetery in a grave marked by a common headstone, located about 25 feet from the group memorial.
President Carter continued to attempt to secure the hostages' release before his presidency's end. On 20 January , minutes after Carter's term ended, the 52 US captives held in Iran were released, ending the day Iran hostage crisis.
Vance , believing that the operation would not work and would only endanger the lives of the hostages, opted to resign, regardless of whether the mission was successful or not.
His resignation was confirmed several days later. Ruhollah Khomeini condemned Jimmy Carter,  and in a speech after the incident, credited God with throwing sand to protect Iran.
Who crushed Mr. Carter's helicopters? We did? The sands did! They were God's agents. Wind is God's agent These sands are agents of God.
They can try again! Holloway III led the official investigation in into the causes of the operation's failure on behalf of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Holloway Report primarily cited deficiencies in mission planning, command and control, and inter-service operability, and provided a catalyst to reorganize the Department of Defense.
The various services' failure to cohesively work together prompted the establishment of a new multi-service organization several years later.
The lack of well-trained Army helicopter pilots who were capable of the low-level night flying needed for modern special operations missions prompted the creation of the th Special Operations Aviation Regiment SOAR Night Stalkers.
In addition to the th SOAR's creation, the US Defense Department now trains many military helicopter pilots in low-level penetration, aerial refueling and use of night-vision goggles.
In addition to the formal report, various reasons for the mission failure have been argued, with most analysts agreeing that an excessively complex plan, poor operational planning, flawed command structure, lack of adequate pilot training and poor weather conditions were all contributing factors and combined to doom the operation.
The embassy hostages were subsequently scattered across Iran to preclude any second rescue attempt and were released on 20 January , minutes after Ronald Reagan had taken the oath of office after winning the election against Carter.
Dedicated in , the Iran Rescue Mission Memorial consists of a white marble column with a bronze plaque listing the names and ranks of those who lost their lives during the mission.
Three of the men — Maj. Harold Lewis Jr. Desert Operations is a free trading and military strategy game, where you can face thousands of other players.
Within this browser game not only the number of troops will decide whether you will be victorious but also tactics and strategy have a major impact.
On August 2, , the Iraqi military conducted a 2-day campaign to annex Kuwait and claim the natural resources and land for Iraq.
The initial operation was a resounding success, and the Iraq armed forces occupied the entire neighboring country as well as overrunning the majority of the Kuwait army.
The invasion resulted in a seven month Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, and many from the country fled to Saudi Arabia or Bahrain.
The invasion was costly for the Kuwaiti army, losing 4, troops on the battlefield as well as some 12, were captured by the invading Iraqi army who suffered minor casualties in comparison.
Kuwait was also declared as the "19th Province of Iraq" by dictator Saddam Hussein. Hussein, the Iraqi leader at the time, and his country had recently come to the end of a costly and bloody war with Iran and had racked up enormous debt from Kuwait during this period of war.
Clinton administration officials said the aim of the mission was to "degrade" Iraq's ability to manufacture and use weapons of mass destruction, not to eliminate it.
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright was asked about the distinction while the operation was going on: .
I don't think we're pretending that we can get everything, so this is — I think — we are being very honest about what our ability is.
We are lessening, degrading his ability to use this. The weapons of mass destruction are the threat of the future. I think the president explained very clearly to the American people that this is the threat of the 21st century.
The main targets of the bombing included weapons research and development installations, air defense systems, weapon and supply depots, and the barracks and command headquarters of Saddam's elite Republican Guard.
Also, one of Saddam's lavish presidential palaces came under attack. Iraqi air defense batteries, unable to target the American and British jets, began to blanket the sky with near random bursts of flak fire.
The air strikes continued unabated however, and cruise missile barrages launched by naval vessels added to the bombs dropped by the planes. By the fourth night, most of the specified targets had been damaged or destroyed, the operation was deemed a success and the air strikes ended.
Of significance, the operation marked the first time that women flew combat sorties as U. Navy strike fighter pilots   and the first combat use of the U.
The U. The missiles found their mark striking multiple Iraqi targets including six of President Saddam Hussein's palaces, several Republican Guard barracks, and the Ministries of Defense and Military Industry.
The B-1 bomber made its combat debut by striking at Republican Guard targets. The British contribution totaled 15 percent of the sorties flown in Desert Fox.
By 19 December, U. In total, the hour campaign saw U. The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. On 26 February, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, after they had set of its oil wells on fire.
A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq—Kuwait highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of Death.
Thousands of Iraqi troops were killed. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated.
In coalition-occupied Iraqi territory, a peace conference was held where a ceasefire agreement was negotiated and signed by both sides. At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure.
Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they would soon be liberated from Saddam.
However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising. These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq.
In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over , people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians , because of PLO support of Saddam.
Yasser Arafat didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas ' authority formally apologized in There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government.
In their co-written book, A World Transformed , Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it.
I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.
And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the conflict, for the Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.
And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam [Hussein] worth?
And the answer is, not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.
Kuwaiti democracy advocates had been calling for restoration of Parliament that the Emir had suspended in Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance.
This later became known as checkbook diplomacy. In addition, medical teams were deployed aboard a US hospital ship , and a naval clearance diving team took part in de-mining Kuwait's port facilities following the end of combat operations.
Australian forces experienced a number of incidents in the first number of weeks of the Desert Storm Campaign including the detection of significant air threats from Iraq as a part of the outer perimeter of Battle Force Zulu; the detection of free sea floating mines and assistance to the aircraft carrier USS Midway.
The Australians played a significant role in enforcing the sanctions put in place against Iraq following Kuwait's invasion.
Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF Hornet and CH Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war.
When the air war began, the CFs were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets.
This was the first time since the Korean War that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations.
The only CF Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.
The second largest European contingent was from France, which committed 18, troops. France also deployed several combat aircraft and naval units.
The United Kingdom committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations.
Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles.
Several SAS squadrons were deployed. A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS round fired over 4, metres 2.
Over 1, Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages.
Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1, sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control.
This ultimately led to civilian casualties. In one noted incident, two USAF stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of Iraqi civilians in the shelter.
Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2, civilians died during the air campaign.
A Harvard University study predicted tens of thousands of additional Iraqi civilian deaths by the end of due to the "public health catastrophe" caused by the destruction of the country's electrical generating capacity.
The US government refused to release its own study of the effects of the Iraqi public health crisis.
An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3, from bombing, and some , from the war's other effects.
A United Nations report in March described the effect on Iraq of the US-led bombing campaign as "near apocalyptic," bringing back Iraq to the "pre-industrial age.
Some estimate that Iraq sustained between 20, and 35, fatalities. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20, and 26, Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75, others were wounded.
According to Kanan Makiya , "For the Iraqi people, the cost of enforcing the will of the United Nations has been grotesque. Fleeing soldiers were bombed with a neat device known as a 'fuel-air explosive.
The US Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered battle-related deaths 35 to friendly fire  , with one pilot listed as MIA his remains were found and identified in August A further Americans died in non-combat accidents.
In all, coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, of whom were American, out of coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire.
The number of coalition wounded in combat was , including Americans. This number was much lower than expected.
Among the American dead were three female soldiers. While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units.
Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness.
Common symptoms reported are chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and gastrointestinal disorder. Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects.
Some children born after the war to Gulf War veterans had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war.
Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances.
This publication, called the Riegle Report , summarized testimony this committee had received establishing that the US had in the s supplied Saddam Hussein with chemical and biological warfare technology, that Hussein had used such chemical weapons against Iran and his own native Kurds, and possibly against US soldiers as well, plausibly contributing to the Gulf War Syndrome.
Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, including claims of pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects.
Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of major health issues in veterans and in surrounding civilian populations, including in birth defects and child cancer rates.
Scientific opinion on the risk is mixed. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper.
Also, the uranium that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs.
On the night of 26—27 February , some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1, vehicles.
Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable.
This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack.
Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes.
By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities. Kuwait was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing.
Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the " bulldozer assault", wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division Mechanized were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the heavily fortified "Saddam Hussein Line".
After some deliberation, they opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers.
Not a single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
Anthony] Moreno said. A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than , Palestinians fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces,  in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait.
The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. In the 23 June edition of The Washington Post , reporter Bart Gellman wrote: "Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of Iraq Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations 92 percent of installed capacity destroyed , refineries 80 percent of production capacity , petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers including telephone networks , bridges more than , roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies.
During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse.
Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Only one, Chris Ryan , evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured.
Since Saudi Arabia houses Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence.
The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks ,  the Khobar Towers bombing , and the date chosen for the US embassy bombings 7 August , which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia.
In a December interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai , bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world.
On 6 August , after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the council's sanctions committee.
From until , the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition.
During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis.
Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions. The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Formerly covering an area of around 3, square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were nearly emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and uprisings.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the s and s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons.
Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics.
The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces.
The fires started in January and February , and the last one was extinguished by November. The resulting fires burned uncontrollably because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews.
Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out.
Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states.
The Overseas Development Institute ODI undertook a study in to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response.
A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism.
International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans.